To set forth guidance and recommendations relating to asphalt concrete paving, covering the areas of materials selection, mixture design, and mixture production and placement. The procedures and practices outlined in the Technical Advisory (TA) are directed primarily towards developing quality asphalt concrete pavements for high-type facilities. The TA can also be used as a general guide for low-volume facilities.
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Technical Advisory T 5040.24, Bituminous Mix Design and Field Control, dated August 22, 1985, is canceled.
1.Over one-half of the Interstate System and 70 percent of all highways are paved with hot-mix asphalt concrete. Asphalt concrete is probably the largest single highway program investment today and there is no evidence that this will change in the near future. However, there is evidence that the number of premature distresses in the nation's recently constructed asphalt pavements is increasing. Heavier truck axle weights, increased tire pressures, and inadequate drainage are some of the factors leading to the increase in premature distress. The FHWA has been concerned with the deterioration in quality of asphalt concrete pavements for many years and in 1987 a special FHWA Ad Hoc Task Force studied two of the most common distresses existing today and subsequently issued a report titled "Asphalt Pavement Rutting and Stripping." The report contained both short-term and long-term recommendations for improving the quality of asphalt pavements.
2. With the variables of environment, component materials, and traffic loadings found throughout the United States, it is not surprising that there are many State-to-State or regional variations of design and construction requirements. No one set of specifications can achieve the same results in all States because of the factors mentioned above. However, there are many things that States can do to improve their current mix design and field control procedures to ensure that quality asphalt pavements will be constructed. This TA incorporates many of the FHWA Task Force recommendations and presents the current state-of-the-art in materials, mix design, plant operation, laydown and compaction, and other areas relating to quality hot-mix asphalt pavements.
1.Aggregate is the granular material used in asphalt concrete mixtures which make up 90-95 percent of the mixture weight and provides most of the load bearing characteristics of the mix. Therefore, the quality and physical properties of the aggregates are critical to the pavement performance. The following is recommended:
2.Asphalt grade and characteristics are critical to the performance of the asphalt pavement. The following is recommended:
1.Asphalt concrete mixes should be designed to meet the necessary criteria based on type of roadway, traffic volumes, intended use, i.e., overlay on rigid or flexible pavements, and the season of the year the construction would be performed. Each State's mix design criteria should be as follows.
2.* Equivalent Single Axle Load
3.MINIMUM PERCENT VOIDS IN MINERAL AGGREGATE (VMA)
4.Standard mix design procedures (Marshall, Hveem) have been developed and adopted by AASHTO, however, some States have modified these procedures for their own use. Any modification from the standard procedure should be supported by correlation testing for reasonable conformity to the design values obtained using the standard mix design procedures.
5.Stripping in the asphalt pavements is not a new phenomenon, although the attention to it has intensified in recent years. Moisture susceptibility testing should be a part of every State's mix design procedure. The "Effect of Zero on Compacted Bituminous Mixtures" (immersion compression test) (AASHTO T-165) and "Resistance of Compacted Bituminous Mixture to Moisture Induced Damage" (AASHTO T-283) are currently the only stripping test procedures which have been adopted by AASHTO. The AASHTO T-283, commonly known as the Lottman Test, requires that the test specimens be compacted so as to have an air void content of 7 ± 1 percent, while AASHTO T-165 does not. This air void content is what one would expect in the mat after construction compaction. There is considerable research underway on developing better tests for determining moisture damage susceptibility of the aggregate asphalt mixtures. One of the most promising test procedures is that developed by Tunnicliff and Root as reported in the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 274. This test is similar to AASHTO T-283, but it takes less time to perform. In the majority of cases hydrated lime and Portland cement have proven to be the most effective antistripping additives.
6.The determination of air voids in the laboratory mix is a critical step in designing and controlling asphalt hot-mix. In order to determine air voids, the theoretical maximum density or the maximum specific gravity of the mix must be determined. This can be accomplished by using the "Maximum Specific Gravity of Bituminous Paving Mixtures" (Rice Vacuum Saturation) (AASHTO T-209).
7.Proper mix design procedures require that each mix be designed using all of the actual ingredient materials including all additives which will be used on the project.
8.The complete information on the mix design should be sent to the plant. The following information should be included in the mix design report and sent to the plant.
9.Formal procedures should be established to require that changes to mix designs be approved by the same personnel or office that developed the original mix design.
10.After startup, the resulting mixture should be tested to verify that it meets all of the design criteria.
1.In order to assure proper operation, an asphalt plant must be calibrated and inspected. Plant approval should be required and should cover each item on the asphalt plant checklist (Attachment 3).
2.To avoid or mitigate unburned fuel oil contamination of the asphalt mixture, the use of propane, butane, natural gas, coal or No. 1 or No. 2 fuel oils is recommended.
3.If the asphalt cement is overheated or otherwise aged excessively, the viscosity of the recovered asphalt will exceed that of the original asphalt by more than four times. However, if the viscosity of the recovered asphalt is less or even equal to the original viscosity, it has probably been contaminated with unburned fuel oil.
4.For drum mixer and screenless batch plants there should be three separate graded stockpiles for surface courses and four for binder and base courses. Each stockpile should contain between 15 to 50 percent by weight of the aggregate size in the mix design. The plus #4 sieve aggregate stockpile should be constructed in lifts not exceeding 3 feet to a maximum height of 12 feet. There should be enough material in the stockpiles for at least 5 days of production. The plant should be equipped with a minimum of four cold feed bins with positive separation.
5.Control testing of gradation and asphalt content should be conducted to assure a quality and consistent mixture. In many States, the contractor or supplier is required to do this testing.
6.Acceptance testing should be conducted for gradation and asphalt content of the final mixture.
7.The plotting of control and acceptance test results for gradation, asphalt content, and density on control charts at the plant provides for easy and effective analysis of test results and plant control.
8.The moisture content of the aggregate must be determined for proper control of drum mixer plants. The asphalt content is determined by the total weight of the material that passes over the weigh bridge with the correction made for moisture. Sufficient aggregate moisture contents need to be performed throughout the day to avoid deviations in the desired asphalt content.
9.Moisture contents of asphalt mixtures is also important. The extraction and nuclear asphalt content gauge procedures will count moisture as asphalt. For this reason, a moisture correction should be made. In addition, high moisture contents in asphalt mixtures can lead to compaction difficulty due to the cooling of the mix caused by evaporation of the moisture. This is particularly important with drum mixer mixes which require moisture for the mixing process. Some States specify a maximum moisture content behind the paver. A recommended maximum moisture content behind the paver is 0.5 percent.
7.LAYDOWN AND COMPACTION
1.Prior to paving startup, equipment should be checked to assure its suitability and proper function. Project equipment approval should include the items shown on the project inspection checklist (Attachment 4).
2.Paving startup should begin with a test strip section. This will allow for minor problems to be solved, establishment of roller patterns and number of passes, and will assure that proper placement and compaction can be attained.
3.In order to assure proper placement and compaction, it is essential that the mat be placed hot. Establishment of and compliance with the following items should be included: minimum mix, underlying pavement, and ambient temperatures. Cold weather and early or late season paving should be avoided. The practice of raising the temperature of the mixture to combat the cold conditions should not be permitted, as this will contribute to excessive aging of the asphalt cement.
4.The use of a pneumatic roller in the compaction process is strongly encouraged. When used in the intermediate rolling it will knead and seal the mat surface and aid in preventing the intrusion of surface water into the pavement layers. It will also contribute to the compaction of the mat.
5.Density requirements should be established to result in an air void system in the mat of 6-8 percent immediately after construction. This allows for the inherent additional densification under traffic to an ultimate air void content of about 3-5 percent. Density acceptance specifications should require a percentage of maximum density as determined by AASHTO T-209. A percentage of test strip density or Marshall laboratory density can be used provided each is related to the maximum density. The specified density should be attained before the mat temperature drops below 175° F.
6.Density measurement should be accurate, taken frequently, and the results made available quickly for each day of production. Density should be determined by test cores, or by properly calibrated nuclear test gauges. Specifications should require several tests to be averaged to determine density results for acceptance.
7.Successive hot-mix courses should not be placed while previous layers are wet. To avoid, or minimize the penetration of water into base and binder courses, paving operations should be scheduled so that the surface layer(s) is placed within a reasonable period after these courses are constructed. To the greatest extent possible, construction should be planned to avoid the necessity of leaving layers uncovered during wet seasons of the year.
1.Some States have established procedures to accept out-of-specification material and pavement with a reduction in price. These procedures include definition of lot size/ production time, tolerances, and pay factor reductions for ingredient materials, combined mixture properties, pavement density, pavement smoothness, and lift thickness.
2.Prior to the start of production and placement operations, a preplacement conference, including all the paving participants, should be held. This conference would define duties and responsibilities for each phase of the operation as well as problem-solving procedures.
3.During startup it is very effective to have a construction and/or materials specialist at the project site to assist in identifying and solving any problem that develops.
4.Because asphalt hot-mix pavement construction is complex, it requires that each person involved understand his/her function thoroughly. It is also helpful if each person has a basic understanding of each of the many phases involved. It is recommended that States develop or use existing training to address these phases of asphalt paving.
Ronald E. Heinz
Associate Administrator for
Engineering and Program Development